The Scottish poorhouse, occasionally referred to as a workhouse, provided accommodation for the destitute and poor in Scotland. The first steps taken by the Scottish Parliament regarding arrangements for poor relief were enacted in a 1424 statute segregating vagrants into two categories: those fit enough to be able to work or those who were not considered able-bodied.
The type of assistance given was generally outdoor relief, providing clothing, food, goods or money and poorhouses or their equivalent were often funded by local Scottish merchants.
Towards the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, the system of poor relief in Scotland was considered to be superior to that of its counterpart in England by political economists like James Anderson. Writing in The Bee, in 1792 he reviewed the early volumes of the first Statistical Accounts of Scotland in which most parishes gave information on the poor; Anderson described the statutory system in England as “groaning under the influence of a system of laws” whereas he considered the poor in Scotland were “abundantly supplied with all that their wants require”.
Just over twenty-five years later, in 1818, the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland also praised the methods adopted when giving its opinion in the Select Committee’s Report on the English Poor Laws. Representatives of the English Commissioners spent time in Scotland prior to making recommendations which resulted in the 1834 Poor Law Amendment Act and had declared the laws in Scotland and the way it was administered as “admirable”.
The following text is part of a document of rules distributed to poorhouses from the Board of Supervision in Edinburgh in 1850.
ADMISSION OF POOR PERSONS
XXI. Every or person who shall be admitted as an inmate into the Poorhouse, either upon a first or any subsequent admission, shall be admitted by a written or printed order signed by an Inspector, or by some other person duly authorised by the House-Committee, or by a Parochial Board having a right to send poor persons to the Poorhouse, to sign such order, and not otherwise.
XXII. No poor person shall be admitted on any written or printed order bearing date more than three days before the day on which such order is presented at the Poorhouse, unless such poor person, at the time of receiving the order, was residing at a distance of more than five miles from the Poorhouse; and no poor person shall be admitted on any each order if it bears date more than six days before the day on which it is presented at the Poorhouse.
XXIII. The name and religious persuasion of a poor person admitted to the Poorhouse, with all other particulars required to be stated; shall be duly entered in the Register at the time of admission; and such person shall be placed in a probationary ward or other apartment separate from the inmates of the Poorhouse, and shall there remain till examined by the Medical Officer.
XXIV. If the Medical Officer, upon such examination, pronounce the poor person to be labouring under any disease of body or mind, the poor person shall be placed in the sick-ward, or in such other ward as the Medical Officer shall direct.
XXV. If the Medical Officer pronounce the poor person to be free from any disease, the poor person shall be placed in the part of the Poorhouse assigned to the class to which such poor person belongs.
XXVI. Before being permitted to communicate with the other inmates, the poor person shall be thoroughly cleansed, and shall he clothed in a Poorhouse dress, and the clothes which such poor person wore at the time of admission shall be purified, and deposited in a place appropriated for that purpose, with the owner’s name and a list of the articles affixed thereto, and such clothes shall be returned when the poor person leaves the Poorhouse.
XXVII. Every poor person, upon admission to the Poorhouse, or on return from a temporary leave of absence, shall be searched by, or under the inspection of, the proper officer, and shell be prevented from carrying into the Poorhouse any prohibited article.
CLASSIFICATION OF INMATES
XXVIII. The inmates, so far as the Poorhouse admits thereof, shall be classed as follows:—
1. Males above the age of 15 years.
2. Boys above the age of 2 years, and under that of 15 years.
3. Females above the age of 15 years.
4. Females above the age of 2 yearly and under that of 15 years.
5. Children under 2 years of age.
XXIX. To each of the classes specified in Article XXVIII. shall be assigned by the House-Committee the apartments and yard best fitted for the reception of such class; and where the number of inmates and the accommodation admit thereof, the said classes may be farther subdivided.
XXX. Each class, or subdivision of a class, shall respectively remain in the part of the Poorhouse assigned to them without communication with any other class, or subdivision of a class; subject, nevertheless, to such arrangements as the House-Committee shall make with reference to the probationary wards, the infirmary or sick-ward, and the employment of nurses and helpers.
DISCIPLINE OF THE INMATES
XXXI. All the inmates in the Poorhouse, except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, and children, shall rise, be set to work, leave of work, and to go bed at such times, and shall be allowed such intervals for their meals as the House-Committee shall direct,— and these several times are to be notified by the ringing of a bell.
XXXII. Half an hour after the bell shall have been rung for rising, the names of the inmates shall be called over by the House-Governor, Matron, or other person duly authorised, respectively in the several wards, where every inmate belonging to each ward must be present to answer and to be inspected; and a list of the persons in each ward arranged in dietary classes, as provided in Article LXII., shall be made out for the information of the House-Governor.
XXXIII. The meals shall be taken by the inmates (except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, and children), in the dining-hall, and in no other place whatever; and during the time of meals, order and decorum shall be maintained; and no inmate (except those disabled by sickness or infirmity, persons of unsound mind, or children), shall go to, or remain in, the sleeping-ward, either in the time appointed for work, or in the intervals allowed for meals, except by permission of the House-Governor or Matron.
XXXIV. The House-Governor and Matron shall fix, subject to the directions of the House-Committee, the hours of rising and going to bed for the sick, the infirm, and the young children, and determine the occupation and employment of which such inmates are capable; and the meals of such inmates shall be provided at all times, and in such manner, as the House-Committee may direct.
XXXV. The inmates, of the respective sexes, not employed as nurses or helpers, shall be dieted as set forth in the dietary prescribed for the use of the Poorhouse, and in any other manner,— provided that the Medial Officer may direct in writing such diet for any sick, or lunatic, or infant inmate, as he shall deem necessary.
XXXVI. No inmate shall have or consume any spirituous or fermented liquor, unless by the direction in writing of the Medical Officer; and no inmate shall have or consume any tobacco, or food, or provision, other than is allowed in the dietary, unless with the permission of the House-Governor or Matron, subject to the directions of the House-Committee.
XXXVII. The clothing to be worn by the inmates in the Poorhouse, shall be made of such materials as the Parochial Board or the House-Committee shall determine.
XXXVIII. The inmates of the several classes shall be kept employed according to their capacity and ability; but no inmate shall work on account of any party other than the Parochial Board or House-Committee, which shall be entitled to appropriate, for behoof of the Parish, the whole proceeds of the labour or employment of every inmate.
XXXIX. The boys and girls who are inmates of the Poorhouse shall, for three or more of the working hours of every day, be instructed in reading, writing, arithmetic, and the principles of the Christian religion, and such other instruction shall be imparted to them as shall fit them for service or other employment, and train them to habits of usefulness, industry, and virtue.
XL. Twenty-four hours after having intimated to the House-Governor a desire to be dismissed from the Poorhouse, or sooner if the House-Governor shall think fit, any adult inmate, not a dependent of an inmate, may quit the Poorhouse; but no inmate shall carry away any clothes, or other article belonging to the Poorhouse, without the express permission of the House-Governor or Matron; and no poor person dismissed from the Poorhouse, or so quitting it, shall again be received therein, except in the mode prescribed in Article XXI. for the admission of poor persons.
XLI. No inmate, not being an adult, or, if an adult, being a dependent of an inmate, shall be permitted to leave the Poorhouse, except on temporary leave of absence, without the consent of his parents or guardians, or the inmate on whom he is dependent, unless by express permission of the House-Committee.
XLII. No inmate having a dependent an inmate shall quit the Poorhouse, without taking every such dependent with him, unless by express permission of the House-Committee.
XLIII. The House-Governor may send out the inmates of each sex under the age of fifteen, subject to such restrictions as the House-Committee may impose, and under the care and guidance of himself, or the Matron, or some other person duly authorised by the House-Committee, for the purposes of exercise and instruction.
XLIV. No person shall visit any inmate of the Poorhouse except by permission of the House-Governor or Matron, and subject to such restrictions and conditions as the House-Committee may prescribe; and such interview shall take place, except where a sick inmate is visited, in a room separate from the other inmates, in the presence of the House-Governor, Matron, Porter, or other person duly authorised by the House-Committee.
XLV. No inmate shall be allowed to possess, or to read in the Poorhouse, any book or printed paper of an improper tendency; and no written paper of an improper tendency shall be allowed to circulate, or to be read aloud among the inmates.
XLVI. No inmate shall play at cards, or at any game of chance, in the Poorhouse; and the House-Governor or Matron shall take from any inmate, and dispose of as the House-Committee shall direct, any cards, dice, or other articles relating to games of chance, which may be in his possession.
XLVII. No inmate shall smoke within the Poorhouse, or any building belonging thereto, nor shall have any matches or other articles of a highly combustible nature in his possession.
XLVIII. A properly qualified Medical Officer shall be named to attend at the Poorhouse, and the following shall be his duties:—
(1.) To attend at the Poorhouse daily, at such time or times as the House-Committee shall fix, and also when sent for by the House-Governor or Matron, in cases of sudden illness, accident, or other emergency, and at all such other times as the state of the sick or insane patients within the Poorhouse may render necessary.
(2.) To give, if possible, to the House-Governor and Matron, the name of a qualified medical man, who shall act for him in the event of his being prevented, by indisposition, absence, or otherwise, from performing his duties at the Poorhouse.
(3.) To examine the state of the poor persons on their admission into the Poorhouse — to examine the state of the patients in the sick-wards, and also the state of any sick or insane inmates in the other wards.
(4.) To give all necessary directions as to the classification, diet, and treatment of the sick inmates, and inmates of unsound mind; and to intimate to the House-Governor and Matron, and report to the Chairman or acting Chairman of the House-Committee, any inmate of unsound mind whom he may deem to be dangerous.
(5.) To enter in a book, to be provided by the House-Committee for that purpose, and to be called the “Medical Officer’s Sick Diet-Book,” all directions which he may give regarding the diet of sick inmates, and inmates of unsound mind, and to submit the same to the House-Committee at their ordinary meetings, and at such other times as they may direct.
(6.) To report in writing to the Chairman or acting Chairman of the House-Committee, any defect in the diet, drainage, ventilation, warmth, or other arrangements of the Poorhouse, or any excess in the number of any class of inmates, which he may deem to be detrimental to the health of the inmates.
(7.) To give all necessary directions as to the diet of the children in the Poorhouse, and to vaccinate such as may require vaccination.
(8.) To make to the House-Committee a return of the sick within the Poorhouse, in the prescribed form, weekly or monthly, as that Committee shall direct; and to enter therein the apparent cause of the death of every poor person who shall die in the Poorhouse.
(9.) To give the House-Committee, when required, any reasonable information respecting the case of any poor person who has been under his care — to make such written report relative to any sickness prevalent among the inmates of the Poorhouse, as the House-Committee, the Parochial Board, or the Board of Supervision, may require of him, and to attend the House-Committee when required by them to do so.
(10.) To keep a Register of all patients under his care in the Poorhouse, in which he shall shall enter the name, age, and other particulars of each patient, and an account of his visits, and also of the treatment of the more serious cases, and to submit such Register to the House-Committee and the Visiting-Committee, when required so to do.
(11.) To promote peace, order, obedience, and observance of the rules of the Poorhouse among the inmates; and to inform the House-Governor, the Matron, or the Chairman or acting Chairman of the House-Committee, of any infringement of such rules that may come to his knowledge.
XLIX. The religious instruction of the inmates of the Poorhouse shall be committed to a chaplain, who shall be a distinct officer from the House-Governor, and the following shall be his duties:—
(1.) To lecture or preach to the inmates of the Poorhouse, conjoining prayer and praise, every Sabbath-day.
(2.) To visit any sick inmate of the Poorhouse from time to time, and when he may be applied to for that purpose by the House-Governor or Matron.
(3.) To examine and catechise the children once in every month or oftener; and after each of such examinations to record the same, and state the general progress of the children, in a book to be provided for that purpose by the House-Committee, and which is to be laid before that Committee at their next ordinary meeting.
(4.) To promote peace, order, obedience, and observance of the rules of the Poorhouse among the inmates, and to inform the House-Governor, the Matron, or the Chairman or Acting-Chairman of the House-Committee, of any infringement of such rules that may come to his knowledge, and to perform such other duties suitable to his office as may be required of him by the House-Committee, in terms of his agreement or appointment.
(5.) To report his proceedings generally to the House-Committee at such times as that Committee shall direct, stating the name of the person, if any, who may have officiated for him since the date of his last report.
L. All inmates of the Poorhouse, except those who are incapacitated by sickness, infirmity, or infancy, shall attend morning and evening prayers every day, and divine service every Sabbath-day. Provided that inmates who refuse to attend on account of their religious principles, shall be exempt from such attendance, and shall be engaged, during the time of divine service, in religious exercises, or in reading or hearing read, such religious book suited to their religious persuasion, as the House-Governor shall sanction.
LI. Any regular minister of the religious persuasion of any inmate of the Poorhouse shall, at any time in the day, on the request of any inmate, be allowed by the House-Governor to enter the Poorhouse for the purpose of affording religious assistance to such inmate, or for the purpose of instructing his child or children in the principles of his religion. Provided that such assistance or instruction shall be so given as not to interfere with the good order and discipline of the other inmates of the Poorhouse; and such religious assistance or instruction shall be strictly confined to inmates who are of the religious persuasion of such minister, and to the children of such inmates.
LII. When a regular minister of any religious persuasion shall request permission to visit members of his congregation who may be inmates of the Poorhouse, orders shall be given for his admission at such hours as the House-Governor may consider proper; and if such inmates, or several of them, desire it, arrangements shall be made for assembling them in some convenient apartment, where religious instruction may be given, or divine service conducted with decorum, and apart from the other inmates.
LIII. No work, except the necessary household work and cooking; shall be performed by the inmates on Sabbath-day.
LIV. No work, except the necessary household work and cooking, shall be required to be performed by any poor person who shall be entered in the Register as professing to be a member of the Episcopal Church on Good Friday and Christmas day; nor by any poor person who shall be entered on the Register as professing the Roman Catholic religion on any of the following days observed as holidays in the Roman Catholic Church,— that is to my, the 1st and 6th days of January, the 17th and 25th days of March, the 29th day of June, the 15th day of August, the 1st day of November, Ascension day, and Corpus Christi day.
PUNISHMENTS FOR MISCONDUCT OF INMATES
LV. Any inmate who shall neglect to observe such of the Rules and Regulations of the Poorhouse as are applicable to, and binding upon him;
Or who shall make any noise when silence is ordered to be kept;
Or who shall use obscene or profane language
Or shall, by word or deed, revile or insult person;
Or shall threaten to strike or assault any person;
Or shall not duly cleanse his person;
Or shall refuse or neglect to work, having been required so to do;
Or shall pretend sickness;
Or shall play at cards or other game of chance;
Or shall enter, or attempt to enter, without permission, the ward or, part of the premises appropriated to any class of inmates other than that to which he belongs;
Or shall behave improperly at public worship, or at prayers;
Or shall not return till after the appointed time, when allowed to quit the Poorhouse on temporary leave of absence;
Or shall wilfully disobey any lawful order of any officer of the Poorhouse;
Shall be deemed DISORDERLY, and the House-Governor may punish any such inmate, by requiring him, fora time not exceeding two days, to perform one or two hours of extra work each day, and by withholding, for the like time, all milk or buttermilk which such inmate would otherwise receive with his meals; or by deprivation of such other articles of diet, and for such time, not exceeding three days, as the House-Committee, after consulting with the Medical Officer, shall direct.
LVI. Any inmate who shall, within seven days, repeat any one, or commit more than one, of the offences specified in Article LV., or who shall by word or deed revile or insult the House-Governor, the Matron, or any other officer of the Poorhouse, or any member of the Parochial Board, or any officer of the Parochial Board, being in the Poorhouse in the discharge of his official duty;
Or shall wilfully disobey any lawful order of the House-Governor or Matron, after such order shall have been repeated;
Or shall attempt to introduce any fermented or spirituous liquor, or other prohibited article, without sufficient authority;
Or shall unlawfully strike, or otherwise unlawfully assault, any person;
Or shall wilfully or mischievously damage or soil any property whatsoever belonging to the Poorhouse, or to the Parochial Board;
Or shall be drunk:;
Or shall commit any indecency;
Or shall wilfully disturb the inmates during prayers or divine worship;
Or shall climb over any wall or fence, or attempt to quit the Poorhouse premises in any irregular mode;
Or shall attempt to convey out of the Poorhouse any clothes or other article belonging to the Poorhouse, or to the Parochial Board;
Shall be deemed REFRACTORY, and punishable by solitary confinement, with or without an increase in the time of work, and an alteration of diet, similar in kind and duration to that described in Article LV. for DISORDERLY inmates, as the House-Committee shall direct; but no inmate shall be so confined for a longer period than twenty-four hours; or if it be deemed right that such inmate shall be carried before a magistrate, and twenty-four hours Should not be sufficient for that purpose, then for such further time as may be necessary for such purpose.
LVII. The House-Governor may punish any Disorderly or Refractory inmate, by causing him to wear, during a period of not more than forty-eight hours, a dress different from that of the other inmates, either jointly with or in lieu of the deprivation of any articles of diet to which any such inmates might be subjected by the regulations herein contained.
LVIII. If any offence, by which an inmate becomes Refractory, be accompanied by any of the following circumstances of aggravation; that is to say, if such inmate
Persist in using violence against any person;
Or persist in creating a noise or disturbance, so as to annoy a considerable number of the other inmates, or any sick inmate :
Or endeavour to excite the other inmates to acts of insubordination;
Or persist in acting indecently or obscenely in the presence of any other inmate;
Or persist in mischievously breaking or damaging any goods or property of the Poorhouse, or of the Parochial Board;
Or persist in refusing to work;
The House-Governor shall, without any special order of the House-Committee, place such Refractory inmate in confinement for any time not exceeding twelve hours. But the House-Governor shall not confine any adult inmate without the special order of the House-Committee except in one of the cases specified in this Article.
LIX. No inmate who is under medical treatment, or who is infirm, or who may reasonably be supposed to be under twelve years of age, or who may be pregnant, or who may be suckling a child; shall be punished by alteration of diet, or by confinement, unless the Medical Officer shall have previously certified, in writing, that no injury to the health of such inmate is reasonably to be apprehended from the proposed punishment; and any modification, diminishing such punishment, which the Medical Officer may recommend, on the ground of health, shall be adopted by the House-Governor.
LX. No inmate shall be confined at any time between eight o’clock in the evening and six o’clock in the morning, without being furnished with a bed and bedding suitable to the reason, and with the other proper conveniences.
LXI. No inmate shall be confined in any place which shall not have been previously examined by the Medical Officer, and certified to be a place in which inmates may be confined without injury to their health.
LXII. No child, under twelve years of age, shall be confined in a dark room, or during the night.
LXIII. No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any child except by the Schoolmaster, the Schoolmistress, the House-Governor, or the Matron, nor except with a rod or other instrument, such as shall be seen and approved by the House-Committee, or Visiting-Committee, nor until six hours after he has been convicted of the offence for which such punishment is inflicted, nor on any child whose age may reasonably be supposed to exceed fifteen years.
LXIV. The person who punishes any child with Corporal correction, shall forthwith report to the Governor the particulars of the offence and punishment.
LXV. No corporal punishment shall be inflicted on any female child, except by the Matron or Schoolmistress.
L. The House-Governor shall enter in a book, to be provided for that purpose by the House-Committee, and to be called the “Report-Book of Offences and Punishments,”— 1stly, All cases of inmates who may have been punished without the directions of the House-Committee, together with the particulars of their respective offences and punishments; and, 2ndly, All cases of Refractory or Disorderly inmates, to be reported to the House-Committee for their decision thereon; and such book shall be submitted to the House-Committee at every meeting, when they shall give directions as to any confinement, or other punishment, of any Refractory or Disorderly inmate reported for their decision and Cause such directions to be entered in the minutes of that day’s proceedings, and in the House-Governor’s “Report-Book of Offences and Punishments;” and they shall also enter in that book their approval or disapproval of the conduct of the House-Governor or other officer, in respect to each case in which punishment is reported to have been inflicted by the House-Governor or other officer, without the directions of the House-Committee.
DIET OF THE INMATES
LXVII. The Dietary of the Poorhouse shall be framed in accordance with the following rules:
(1.) No article of diet which is not of good quality, and in a wholesome state, shall he issued, prepared for, or given to any inmate.
(2.) The inmates — not under medical treatment — shall be divided, for the purposes of diet, into seven classes, viz.:—
Class A. Aged persons, of either sex, who are healthy, but who are not working.
… B. Adults, of either sex, who are healthy, but not working, and who are not aged persons, and children, of either sex, above eight, and not above fifteen years of age.
… C. Adult persons, of either sex, who are working.
… D. Infirm persons, of either sex.
… E. Children above five, and not above eight, years of age.
… F. Children above two, and not above five, years of age.
… G. Infants, not above two years of age.
(3.) To each of these Classes, except Class G, three meals a day shall be allowed, which shall consist of—
For Class A.—(First Rate).
Breakfast… Meal, three ounces; and milk, half-pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, six ounces; and broth, one-and-a-half pint imperial.
Supper…… Meal, three ounces; and milk, half-pint imperial.
For Class B.—(Second Rate).
Breakfast… Meal; four ounces; and milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, eight ounces; and broth, one-and-a-half pint imperial.
Supper…… Meal, four ounces; and milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
For Class C.—(Third Rate).
Breakfast… Meal, four ounces; and milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, eight ounces; broth, one-and-a-half pint imperial; and boiled meat, four ounces.
Supper…… Meal, four ounces; and milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
For Class D.—(Fourth Rate.)
Breakfast… Meal; four ounces; and skimmed milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, six ounces; rice-soup, one-and-half pint imperial
Supper…… Bread, six ounces; and tea, half-pint imperial.
For Class E.—(Fifth Rate).
Breakfast… Meal, four ounces; and; milk, three-fourths pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, six ounces; and broth, one pint imperial.
Supper…… Meal, three ounces; and milk, half-pint imperials
For Class F.—(Sixth Rate).
Breakfast… Meal, three-and-half-ounces; and new milk, half-pint imperial.
Dinner……. Bread, five ounces; and broth, three-fourths pint imperial.
Supper…… Meal, three ounces; and new milk, half-pint imperial.
For Class G.—(Seventh Rate).
Not less than eight ounces of white leavened bread, or seven ounces of meal, and one pint imperial of new milk, daily; to, be prepared in such manner, and given at such times, as the Medical Officer shall recommend.
(4.) The meal may be either oatmeal or Indian meal, or a mixture of these two kinds.
(5.) The milk may be buttermilk, where new milk or skimmed milk is not specified.
(6.) The bread, in the first six rates, may be of such sort as is generally used by the labouring population in the Parish or Perishes to which the Poorhouse belongs.
(7.) The broth shall be made with two ounces of meat, exclusive of bone, two ounces of barley, half-an-ounce of pease, one-and-a-half ounces of carrots, turnips, or other vegetables approved by the Medical Officer, and a due quantity of salt, for each ration of one-and-half-pint imperial; and for other quantities in the like proportions.
(8). The rice-soup for Class D. (Fourth Rate), shall be so made, that for each ration for an infirm inmate, there shall be four ounces of meat (which shall be left in the soup or not, as the Medical Officer shall direct, in each case); rice, one-and-a-half ounces; vegetables, two ounces; salt and pepper, the due quantity.
(9.) The tea for Class D. (Fourth Rate), shall be made with sugar, half-an-ounce; new milk, one ounce; and tea, one-eighth of an ounce, for each half-pint imperial.
(10.) In the First, Second, and Third Rates, there may be substituted, not more than three times a-week, for the broth at dinner, one-and-a-half imperial pint of peasoup, made with two ounces of whole or split pease, one-and-a-half ounces of pease-flour, one ounce of vegetables, and a due proportion of salt and pepper.
(11.) In the First, Second, and Third Rates, there may be substituted, not more than once a-week, for-the broth at dinner, three ounces of skimmed-milk cheese; and, for the broth and meat together, four-and-a-half ounces.
(12.) In the First and Second Rates, there may be substituted, not more than twice a-week, for the broth at dinner, eight ounces of white fish; and, in the Third Rate, twelve ounces of white fish, for the broth and meat together.
(13.) In the First Rate, there may be substituted, not more than twice a-week, for the bread and broth at dinner, one-and-a-half pounds of boiled potatoes, with three-fourths of a pint imperial of skimmed milk; and, in the Second and Third Rates, two pounds of boiled potatoes, with three-fourths of an imperial pint of skimmed milk; and in the Third Rate, for the bread, broth, and meat together, three pounds of boiled potatoes, with one imperial pint of skimmed milk.
(14.) The House-Committee may, under the written advice of the Medical Officer or Medical Officers, and by an order entered in the minutes of their proceedings, direct the use of other articles, in other proportions, than the above, whenever the scarcity of any article, the season of the year, or any circumstance affecting the sanatory condition of the inmates, shall be deemed to justify such changes; but, in any such change, there shall be no diminution of the amount of nutriment, or of the proportion of nitrogenous or azotised nutriment required by these rules, unless with the previous consent of the Board of Supervision.
(15.) The diet for any inmate who is under medical treatment, shall be such as the Medical Officer shall prescribe for him, and shall enter in a book, to be kept for that purpose, and to be called the “Medical Officer’s Sick Diet Book,” which shall be submitted to the House-Committee at every ordinary meeting.